The United States Army
By Nevik Senias
The U.S. Army is the oldest of the five branches of the military. It has changed and grown ever since it was established in 1775. The army consists of many different jobs, though most people usually only think of two or three. Those jobs are active duty soldiers, reserves, and officers.
During the second continental congress on June 14, 1775, Congress passed a law that made the continental army Then the second Continental Congress appointed George Washington as the Commander-in-Chief of the army. The first war the army fought in was the Revolutionary War (1775-1783). The other wars it participated in are: the War of 1812 (1812-1815), the Mexican War (1846-1848), the Civil War (1861-1865), the Spanish-American War (1898-1898), World War I (1917-1918), World War II (1941-1945), the Cold War (mid 1940s-early 1980s), the Korean War (1950-1953), the Vietnam War (1954-1975), the Gulf War (1990-1992?), the War on Terrorism (2001-), and Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003).
The Army's Structure
The army's soldiers can be divided into what is referred to as three arms. They are the combat arm, the combat support arm, and the combat-service-support arm. The combat arm consists of the troops in the front lines of a battle. The combat support arm manages the combat arm during a battle, and provides communication systems, information about the enemy, building crews, and help with supplies. The combat-service-support arm is responsible for medical care, directing transportation and supplies, the army's finances, and legal services.
Combat Arm Weapons
The combat arm is divided into six branches. Those branches are: the infantry, the field artillery, the air-defense-artillery, the armor branch, the aviation branch, and the Special Forces. The infantry's weapons are the M-16 rifles, the Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW), missiles called stingers, and mortars. The air-defense-artillery uses Patriot missiles. The field artillery's weaponry includes Paladins (howitzers) and the Tactical Missile System. The armor branch's weapons are tanks. Their main battle tanks are the M1, M1A1, and the M1A2 Abrams. The aviation branch uses helicopters to transport troops and equipment.
Enlisted Soldier Ranks
Private-(PVT), Private-(PV2), Private First Class-(PFC), Specialist-(SPC), Corporal-(CPL), Sergeant-(SGT), Staff Sergeant-(SSG), Sergeant First Class-(SFC), Master Sergeant-(MSG), First Sergeant-(1SG), Sergeant Major-(SGM), Command Sergeant Major-(CSM), and Sergeant Major of the Army-(SMA).
Warrant Officer Ranks
Warrant Officer-(WO1), Chief Warrant Officer-(CW2), Chief Warrant Officer-(CW3), Chief Warrant Officer-(CW4), and Master Warrant Officer-(MW5).
Second Lieutenant-(2LT), First Lieutenant-(1LT), Captain-(CPT), Major-(MAJ), Lieutenant Colonel(-LTC), Colonel-(COL), Brigadier General-(BG), Major General-(MG), Lieutenant General-(LTG), General-(GEN), and General of the Army-(GOA.)
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Bibliography: The United States Army by Michael Green, Microsoft Encarta Articles, and http://users.erols.com/markburmeister/Rank.htm